Online-Öffentlichkeiten: Fragmentierung oder Integration? 27 November 08

Ich bin gerade nochmal einen Artikel von Christoph Neuberger durchgegangen, der den Wandel von Öffentlichkeit und Journalismus im Lichte aktueller Online-Formate skizziert.1 Und bin dabei auf eine sehr schöne Fassung des Phänomens gestoßen, dass sich der aktuelle Wandel u.a. durch eine Verschiebung von „kleinen Öffentlichkeiten“ auf mediale Plattformen beschreiben lässt (vgl. auch meinen Vortrag dazu). 

“Die oft aufgestellte Behauptung, im Internet entstehe eine “fragmentierte” Öffentlichkeit ist [...] kaum haltbar. Eher das Gegenteil dürfte der Fall sein: Das Internet schafft zunächst eine integrierte Öffentlichkeit, die unterschiedliche Ebenen von Öffentlichkeit in einem Medium verreint. Die Fehlannahme beruht auf einer Art optischen Täuschung: Im Internet wird sichtbar, dass es jenseits der massenmedialen Öffentlichkeit auch bisher schon ‘kleine’ Öffentlichkeiten gab, die durch Medien mit geringer Reichweite (z.B. Flugblatt, Plakat, …) und als Präsenzöffentlichkeiten (z.B. Versammlung, Vortrag, Demo) hergestellt wurden.

Das Internet kittet Medien- und Formatbrüche, die bisher die Weiterverbreitung von Informationen behindert haben. […] Die Durchlässigkeit zwischen ‘kleinen’ und ‘großen’ Öffentlichkeiten wächst durch Vernetzung, die Übergänge werden fließend.” (33)

Das Netz integriert also (vormals durch eine mediale Kluft – bei Gerhards/Neidhardt „Arena und Galerie” – getrennte) Öffentlichkeiten verschiedener Komplexitätsgrade auf einer Medienplattform und trägt so zu einer Integration von Kommunikation bei. Spannend ist dann natürlich die Frage, ob diese vermeintlich wachsende „Durchlässigkeit“ tatsächlich zu einer stärkeren (?) Vermittlung von Kommunikationen aus den einfachen Öffentlichkeiten in komplexe, gesellschaftliche Öffentlichkeit führt.

Und: Gleichzeitig führt diese Medialisierung von einfachen Öffentlichkeiten offenbar dazu, dass diese an Bedeutung gegenüber gesamtgesellschaftlichen Öffentlichkeiten und ihren Themen gewinnen. So könnte man auch die AWA-2008-Zahlen (pdf) lesen, dass das Interesse der 14-29jährigen an „gesellschaftlichen Themen“ zurückgeht. Also doch Fragmentierung?

  1. Neuberger, Christoph. (2008). „Internet und Journalismusforschung: Theoretische Neujustierung und Forschungsagenda“, in: Thorsten Quandt und Wolfgang Schweiger (Hrsg.), Journalismus online – Partizipation oder Profession? Wiesbaden: VS. 17-42. []

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